Glossary of General Industry Terms

Art Paper High quality and rather heavy two-sided coated printing paper with smooth surface.The reproduction of fine screen single, double and multicolour pictures "art on paper" requires a paper that has an even, well closed surface and a uniform ink absorption.

Back Margin See Gutter.

Backing-up Printing the reverse side of a sheet already printed on one side.

Bitmapped Generally a low res image is formed by a rectangular grid of pixels. This can form jagged edges on a image.

Blanket In offset lithography printing it is a flexible fabric clamped around the cylinder which transfers the image from plate to paper.

Bleaching Papermaking process to whiten cellulose fibres.

Bleeds Where the image extends off the edge of a printed page. Griffin Press prefers a minimum of 5mm for all presses.

Blind Stamping /Embossing A image which is stamped or embossed without foil or ink, giving a raised or depressed effect.

Block The image stamps used in foil stamping and embossing.

Blocking Lettering or ornamentation impressed into a book cover or case, eg gold foiling.

Book Paper General term used to define a class or group of papers especially designed for book production.

Brightness The reflectance or brilliance of the paper when measured under a specially calibrated blue light. Not necessarily related to colour or whiteness. Brightness is expressed as a %.

Burst Binding A binding method which involves slotting/punching a hole along the spine of a section when folding. Adhesive is then forced through the slot when binding. Excellent binding qualities for coated stocks without section sewing.

Byte A unit of measure equal to eight bits of digital information. The standard unit measure of a file size.

Calendered Paper Paper that has been smoothed and compacted between the rolls of a calender unit and is thus more or less glossy (sharp or matt calendered). The effect produced in the calender unit is the result of friction combined with temperature and pressure.

Case The hard cover of a cased-in book.

Case-Binding A binding method producing a cased-in book.

Chemical Wood Paper Paper made from wood pulp treated chemically to remove the lignin.

Coated Paper Paper with a surface coating that produces a smooth finish.

Coating Coatings such as machine varnish, UV varnish, matt or gloss lamination are used to seal the printed surface.

Colour Breakdown In multi-colour printing, to separate the parts to be printed in different colours.

Colour Proof A high quality digital print that is used as a representation of the result that can be achieved during the conventional printing process..

Colour Separation Separation of the colours making up a full-colour original, usually consists of the three primaries plus black, each of which will be reproduced by a separate printing plate. Additional colours are often needed for colour critical reproduction.

Corner Marks Register marks used for accurate positioning of images when imposing, as well as registering the image in the printing process.

Cropping Trimming or masking off unwanted portions of an image.

Curl Distortion of the unrestrained sheet of paper arising from differences in structure coatings from one side to the other. The curl side is the concave side of the sheet.

CtP Computer-to-Plate The transferring of digital data from the computer, and imaging the information directly to a printing plate. No film required.

Cyan The blue component of the standard four-colour printing colours.

DCS Desktop Colour Separation. A format which creates five PostScript files, a positional image and one file each for the process colours that make up the images.

Deboss The opposite to emboss. A sunken image.

DPI Dots Per Inch. A measure of degree of resolution of a print or a electronic image.

Digital Print The printing from digital files directly to a printing device which does not use plates as in the conventional printing process.

Drop Shadow A tone of colour, or line, which falls on one side of horizontal and vertical parts of type, as would a shadow on a three-dimensional object.

Dropped Initial Initial capital letter which extends below the first line of the text, often found on a chapter opening.

Endmatter Printed matter (usually explanatory) following the text; e.g. appendices, bibliography, index etc.

eps Encapsulated PostScript. A file format used to transfer PostScript Image Information from one program to another.

Foot The bottom edge of a book.

Foiling Printing an image by applying a fine sheet of metal look-a-like. Often used to decorate covers and jackets.

Folio The page number.

Font Another name for a typeface.

Fore-edge The outer-opening edge of a book.

Gatefold Cover A flap or flaps on the fore-edge of a book which fold in (front, back or both), made by a fold running parallel to the spine and tucking the excess back-in.

Gloss A measure of the reflectance of the paper surface.

Gloss Art Paper High-gloss coated paper offering reflective qualities which enhance the appearance of printed matter.

Glued Hinge A second crease in the cover approximately 7mm from the spine on front and back cover. This area is adhered to the front and back pages.

Grammage (gsm) Weight of 1 square metre of paper expressed in grams per square metre (gsm or gm2).

Grayscale Adobe Photoshop term. With the scanning of a Black & White picture, grayscale mode will use up to 256 shades of gray to view a image.

GSM See Grammage.

Gutter Inner vertical margin of a book. (Also known as back margin).

Halftone Reproduction of continuous tone artwork, such as a photograph, with the image translated into dots of various sizes.

Head The top of a book.

Head Margin The top horizontal margin of a book.

Head & Tail Bands Strips of material (only decorative) placed at the head and tail of the spine of a cased-in book.

Highlight Whitest parts of a photograph represented by the smallest dots or the absence of dots.

Imagesetter A device used to output a computer image or composition at high resolution onto photographic paper, film or plate.

Imposition The pattern from which pages will be imposed so that they are in proper sequence when printed and folded.

Keyline A box used as a position for illustrations and photographs for placement.

Lamination Plastic film coating on a printed sheet (ie matt or gloss for protection and appearance purposes).

Landscape When the page size is wider than it is deep.

Leaf A single sheet (comprised of 2 sides) equivalent to 2 pages.

Line Drawing Copy suitable for reproduction without using a screen.

Long Grain Grain of the paper running parallel to the spine of the book.

LPI Lines Per Inch. A measure of the frequency of a halftone screen (usually ranging from 55-200). LPI refers to the frequency of the horizontal and vertical lines.

Magenta The red component of the standard four-colour printing colours.

Make-ready Mechanical machine preparation for printing and binding equipment prior to running.

Margins Spaces surrounding the print text area of a page.

Matt Art Paper Low-gloss coated paper enabling a very low level of ink gloss and offering superior smoothness and ink hold-out (compared to uncoated surfaces).

Mechanical Paper Paper made from mechanically treated wood paper pulp. Mechanical pulp is used in the manufacture of newsprint and other surfaced papers. Lower brightness and whiteness.

Micronage The thickness of paper expressed a 1/100th of a millimetre (eg 122 microns).

Mid-tones Tonal range between highlights and shadows of a halftone.

Newsprint Newsprint is a highly mechanical, machine finished or calendered rotary printing paper (40-56gsm) mainly made from mechanical and increasingly waste paper pulps. In line with its intended use as a short lived information medium, the demands of newsprint in terms of optical properties or printability are lower than those on other coated printing papers. Newsprint must have very good run ability; today's state of the art printing techniques require a paper with good tear strength so that uninterrupted production on high speed rotary presses is ensured. Newsprint is used for newspapers and increasingly for mass-market paperbacks produced in letterpress or offset printing.

Notch Binding See Burst Binding.

Offset Lithography Making use of the lithographic principle that oil and water do not mix. An oil-based ink is used to ink a greased image area (the non-image area is kept wet with water) which is transferred from the plate of an offset cylinder (called the blanket) to the paper.

Offset Paper Collective term for printing papers with special properties for offset printing. For instance, the paper must not emit dust during processing and must be pick resistant. Offset paper may be woodfree or mechanical, coated (matt, glossy, embossed) or uncoated and is processed in sheets as well as reels.

Opacity A property of paper which measures the degree of light that can pass through, "Show Through".

Overs See Run-ons.

Paperboard A heavy weight, thick, rigid and single or multilayer sheet. What differentiates paperboard from paper is the weight of the sheet. If paperboard is very heavy it is called board. Paper heavier than 150 grams per metre square is normally called Paperboard and paperboard heavier than 500 grams per metre square is called Board.

PDF Portable Document Files which are small in size and have all the necessary information (eg fonts, eps, tiffs) embedded within the document, ready for viewing or output to any digital device.

Perfect Binding Form of binding in which the single leaves are attached to the cover by means of adhesive.

Perfecting Printing process where by both sides of paper print in one pass on the press.

Pixel Picture element. The smallest unit of a bitmapped image displayed on a screen.

pp Abbreviation for page count (eg. 256pp).

PMS Pantone Matching System, internationally recognised system of colour matching and colour specification.

Portrait Page measures deeper than it is wide.

PostScript It is a language that contains all information in relation to a jobs contents (ie font, pictures, words) that can be sent to a digital outputting device (eg. laserwriter, imagesetter or platesetter).

Pre-press Term incorporating all activities prior to printing - typesetting, lettering, photography, scanning, colour separation, proofs, film, printing plates etc.

Primary Colours Yellow, Magenta (process red), and cyan (process blue) in printing; red, green and blue in photography.

Print Area The area of a sheet on which printing takes place; usually framed by margins.

Process Printing The printing of four (4) base colours (usually black, cyan, magenta or yellow) to create potentially 100's of colours via the methods of colour separation and combining.

Recto Right hand page of a book.

Register Marks Crosses or other marks on originals to act as a guide for imposition platemaking, printing and colour registration.

Resolution The clarity of a reproduced image expressed in dpi.

RIP Raster Image Processor. Part of an output device that processes information so that it may be imaged onto film or paper.

Run Number of copies to be printed.

Run-ons Additional copies of printed matter in excess of required ordered quantity.

Running Head Title/descriptive heading repeated at the top of each page.

Stitching Securing pages by wire staples through the centre fold. In saddle stitched work, the printed sections are inserted one inside the other.

Scan The electronic process that converts an image from its hard copy form to an electronic image suitable for colour separations and creating film for printing plates.

Scoring Creasing a sheet, particularly heavy stock, so that it will fold accurately.

Screen Photo screen used to convert a continuous tone image to a dot formation.

Screen Angles In colour separation, the four primary colours (C,Y,M,K) are angled at 30 degree intervals to prevent moire pattern.

Screen Ruling Measure of the number of lines per inch (lpi) on a contact screen or ruled halftone screen.

Self-cover Cover printed on the same stock as the book.

Sheetfed Printing on individual sheets of paper.

Short Grain Grain of the paper at right angles to the spine of the book.

Show-through Condition where printing on one side of paper can be seen from the other side.

Spine Back of a bound book connecting the two covers. Also called 'back'.

Spiral Binding Binding book with a spiral wire inserted through holes punched along the binding side.

Spot Varnish Applying a varnish to highlight specific areas on a cover/jacket usually applied over the top of matt lamination.

Spreads and Chokes A pre-press technique which allows for variations in registration during the press run. On the desktop, this is done primarily by allowing an overlap between abutting (adjoining) colours.

Step and Repeat A system of repeating an image on a plate by stepping it into position according to a predetermined layout. Used for multiple printing of covers on a sheet. Also called 'Stepping'.

Stipple A description used when the tone is altered by adjusting the percentage of dots (a percentage of solid creating a lighter tone).

Stock Paper or other material to be printed.

Squares Projection of the boards beyond the head, fore-edge and tail of a hard cover book. Sometimes known as 'veranda'.

Supercalendered Paper Paper which has been passed between heavy rollers to give a smooth surface of moderate gloss.

Tail The bottom of a book (bottom of page).

Text Paper Text papers are defined as fine, high quality uncoated papers. Typically, they are made in various colours, with numerous textures and a variety of surface finishes. Text papers are made from high-grade bleached wood pulp, cotton fibres, tree-free fibres or tree-free pulp such as bamboo. Recycled sheets include high quality recycled waste paper and post-consumer waste pulp, in addition to bleached wood pulp, tree-free pulp or cotton fibres.

TIFF Tagged Image File Format for exchanging bitmapped images (usually scans) between applications.

Trapping (film) See Spreads and Chokes.

Trapping (print) The ability of one or more inks to sit over other colours when printed. Dry Trapping is when an ink is printed over the top of a image on a dry, previously printed sheet (2 passes through press). Wet Trapping is when an ink is printed over the top of a image when other colour(s) are wet (1 pass through press).

Tints Even tone areas (strengths) of a solid colour.

Tone Drawings Drawings which cannot be reproduced by line because they use brush, wash or other forms of shading to merge gradually from black to white.

Transparency Monochrome or full-colour photographic positive or picture on a transparent support.

Trim Marks Marks placed on copy to indicate the edge of the page for trimming.

-Up In printing, two-up, three-up etc. refers to duplication of material to be printed on a larger size sheet than would be necessary for only one copy of the material. This takes advantage of full press capacity.

Varnish Thin protective coating applied to a printed sheet for protection or appearance.

Verso Left-hand page of a book.

Web Paper which is fed through press from reels as oppose to sheets (eg there "webfed printing").

Web Press One which prints from reels (or webs) of paper.

Wire-O Binding Continuous double series of wire loops run through punched slots along the binding side of a booklet.

Wood Free Paper Paper made from wood pulp treated chemically to remove the lignin.

Work-and-Turn To print one side of a sheet of paper and then turn the sheet over from left to right to print the second side with the same printing plate.

Work-and-Tumble Printing both sides of a sheet in two passes using opposite grips on each pass.

Zip File A single file containing one or more files - such as documents, pictures or programs - in a compressed format.